The Socialists were organized as a political party in 1878. The Sociaal Democratische Vereeniging (Social Democratic Association) and its successor the Sociaal Democratische Bond (SDB, Social Democratic Union) developed under the leadership of Hendrik Gerhard (1829–1886) and Ferdinand Domela Nieuwen huisinto an anarchistic, antiparliamentarian movement. In 1894, the moderate wing, under Pieter Jelles Troelstra, founded a successful independent political party, the Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders partij (SDAP, Social Democratic Worker’s Party). It won two seats (out of 100) in Parliament during the elections of 1897, a number that increased to 15 in 1913. After the introduction of universal suf frage in 1917, the Socialists won 22 to 24 seats. The Socialists did not accept responsibility in the national government until 1939. Af ter World WarII, the reformed Partij van de Arbeid(PvdA, Labor Party), under the leadership of Willem Drees, won between 29 (out of 100) and 53 (out of 150 after 1956) seats in Parliament, with its peak in 1977. Since then, the electoral success of the Social Demo crats has fluctuated, usually in favor of less ideologically inspired parties and of the Dutch GroenLinks (GL, Green Left) and the So cialistische Partij (SP, Socialist Party). Many national and foreign archivesof left-wing institutions and persons are kept in the Interna tionaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis (IISG, International Insti tute of Social History), founded in 1935 in Amsterdam.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.


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